The pillars of marriage are a major part of the marriage process carried out by Muslims. In Islam, the pillars must be fulfilled so that something can be declared valid. Not only the pillars of marriage, there are also the pillars of prayer, the pillars of zakat, or the pillars of pilgrimage. Like other worship services, a marriage is not legal if there is one marriage pillar that is not fulfilled.
Marriage Guidance in Islam
By nature, humans already have the urge to pair up with each other. The Qur’an states that every creature has been created with a partner. However, to realize a sakinah marriage also requires physical, mental, and economic readiness as stated in the following paragraph.
“Let those who have not been able (married) to hold back, until Allah bestows them the ability“(QS An-Nur : 33)
Marriage is a worship that must be perfected not only from the marriage pillars, but also from the readiness of the couple. According to the history of Imam Bukhari, marriage began with proposals to parents or guardians of marriage, followed by paying dowry, then married.
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Pillars of Islamic Marriage and Explanations
Pillars of marriage need to be perfected so that the marriage can be declared valid for the bride and groom. The absence of one of the pillars of marriage will make an illegitimate marriage before religion. The following is the presentation of the five pillars of marriage quoted from Imam Zakaria al-Ansari in Fathul Wahab bi Syarhi Minhaj al-Thalab (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr), juz II, p. 41
The groom is a prospective husband who is not mahram of and is Muslim. Prospective husbands must be forced, determined, and know their prospective wife to be a halal partner before marriage. The bridegroom must be present during the marriage contract and his presence may not be represented.
Candidates for a lawful wife married by a bridegroom are called brides. Women who are to be married must not be bound by blood relations, milk relations (have the same milk mother), or relationship with aging. Women who are currently pregnant or are in the period of Idah (separated from their previous husband due to divorce alive or dead) also may not get married.
3. Marriage guardian
The marriage guardian is mainly performed by the biological father of the bride. However, this role can also be represented, especially if the bride’s father has died or is unable to attend. The following are the people who are entitled to become marriage guardians.
– Grandfather (father of the bride’s father)
– Siblings (brother or sister)
– Elder brother
– Uncle (father’s brother)
– Uncle’s son (from father’s family)
4. Two witnesses
Marriage witnesses are also required to attend the wedding that will be conducted. Two witnesses who must meet the fair and reliable conditions must be present. Witnesses and marriage guardians must fulfill the following six conditions.
– Free (not slave)
5. Shighat (Ijab Kabul)
In order for a legal and halal marriage in Islam, the consent and consent must be done in the contract process. Ijab is a greeting from the marriage guardian of the woman as a surrender to the bridegroom. Sayings of consent will be accompanied by the presence of the groom of the bridegroom as acceptance.
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Dowry Marriage in Islamic Law
Dowry (dowry) becomes one of the things regulated in Islamic law. Article 30 KHI Article 2 of the Marriage Law requires the bridegroom to pay dowry to the bride and groom on the amount, form and type agreed by both parties.
Although not included as a pillar of marriage, dowry at marriage is regulated in Islamic Law Compilation law. In Article 1 letter d KHI explained that the dowry is always used by prospective Muslim couples who will get married. Provision of dowry is also required to be paid by the bridegroom.
“Give the dowry (dowry) to the woman (the person you are marrying) as a gift with full will. Then if they hand over to you part of the dowry with pleasure, then eat (take) the gift (as food) which is as good as the consequences. ” (Surat an-Nisa : 4)
Islamic law does not set limits to determine the minimum value of dowry (dowry) marriage. The amount of the dowry is left to the agreement between the bridegroom and the bride so that the dowry is considered valid. It was also stated in Article 31 KHI that, “Determination of the dowry is based on simplicity and ease recommended by Islamic teachings.”
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Various Types of Marriage Mas
What dowry can you give to the bride? This may appear in the minds of the bride and groom. Basically, a dowry must be something useful. Materially, a dowry can also be a simple and beneficial item for the faith.
1. The dowry of the prayer tools
The dowry in the form of prayer tools is usually chosen because it is considered to be beneficial to increase faith. Prayers usually consist of complete worship devices such as the Koran, mukena, prayer rugs and prayer beads.
2. The dowry of money
The value of the currency for the dowry can be determined jointly by the bride and groom. Dowry money is most often found and considered the simplest. Usually, dowry in the form of money is also made in symbols of beautiful and unique decorations with historic nominal figures such as wedding dates.
3. The golden dowry
Gold has a value that tends to increase over time. Therefore, a gold dowry is usually given by the bridegroom to the bride. The form can be in the form of jewelry or pure gold and bars which are liquid assets for the future.
4. Mutual funds or stocks
Investment instruments also become the gold dowry that is often chosen. There are many companies that sell their shares to the public. The bride and groom can also agree on investment instruments used as dowry.
5. Journey of worship
Other dowries that can be used by couples who are going to get married are also given in the form of worship trips. Yes, in Islam, the pilgrimage can also be used as a dowry as long as it is agreed by the couple. Like the prayer tool, the pilgrimage is considered beneficial as a perfection of faith.
Well, that is the pillar of marriage and dowry that need to be prepared by prospective couples to be married. So, for those who are ready physically and spiritually to get married and give dowry, prepare according to mutual agreement.
(Ade Kurnia Irawan)